User Guide

Credentials and account types

Credentials are the means of identifying an application or user to a service or API. Credentials can be obtained with two different types of accounts: service accounts and user accounts.

Credentials from service accounts identify a particular application. These types of credentials are used in server-to-server use cases, such as accessing a database. This library primarily focuses on service account credentials.

Credentials from user accounts are obtained by asking the user to authorize access to their data. These types of credentials are used in cases where your application needs access to a user’s data in another service, such as accessing a user’s documents in Google Drive. This library provides no support for obtaining user credentials, but does provide limited support for using user credentials.

Obtaining credentials

Application default credentials

Google Application Default Credentials abstracts authentication across the different Google Cloud Platform hosting environments. When running on any Google Cloud hosting environment or when running locally with the Google Cloud SDK installed, default() can automatically determine the credentials from the environment:

import google.auth

credentials, project = google.auth.default()

If your application requires specific scopes:

credentials, project = google.auth.default(

Service account private key files

A service account private key file can be used to obtain credentials for a service account. You can create a private key using the Credentials page of the Google Cloud Console. Once you have a private key you can either obtain credentials one of three ways:

  1. Set the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to the full path to your service account private key file

    $ export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=/path/to/key.json

    Then, use application default credentials. default() checks for the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable before all other checks, so this will always use the credentials you explicitly specify.

  2. Use service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file:

    from google.oauth2 import service_account
    credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file(
    scoped_credentials = credentials.with_scopes(
  3. Use service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_info:

    import json
    from google.oauth2 import service_account
    json_acct_info = json.loads(function_to_get_json_creds())
    credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_info(
    scoped_credentials = credentials.with_scopes(


Private keys must be kept secret. If you expose your private key it is recommended to revoke it immediately from the Google Cloud Console.

Compute Engine, Container Engine, and the App Engine flexible environment

Applications running on Compute Engine, Container Engine, or the App Engine flexible environment can obtain credentials provided by Compute Engine service accounts. When running on these platforms you can obtain credentials for the service account one of two ways:

  1. Use application default credentials. default() will automatically detect if these credentials are available.

  2. Use compute_engine.Credentials:

    from google.auth import compute_engine
    credentials = compute_engine.Credentials()

The App Engine standard environment

Applications running on the App Engine standard environment can obtain credentials provided by the App Engine App Identity API. You can obtain credentials one of two ways:

  1. Use application default credentials. default() will automatically detect if these credentials are available.

  2. Use app_engine.Credentials:

    from google.auth import app_engine
    credentials = app_engine.Credentials()

In order to make authenticated requests in the App Engine environment using the credentials and transports provided by this library, you need to follow a few additional steps:

  1. If you are using the google.auth.transport.requests transport, vendor in the requests-toolbelt library into your app, and enable the App Engine monkeypatch. Refer App Engine documentation for more details on this.

  2. To make HTTPS calls, enable the ssl library for your app by adding the following configuration to the app.yaml file:

    - name: ssl
      version: latest
  3. Enable billing for your App Engine project. Then enable socket support for your app. This can be achieved by setting an environment variable in the app.yaml file:


User credentials

User credentials are typically obtained via OAuth 2.0. This library does not provide any direct support for obtaining user credentials, however, you can use user credentials with this library. You can use libraries such as oauthlib to obtain the access token. After you have an access token, you can create a google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials instance:

import google.oauth2.credentials

credentials = google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials(

If you obtain a refresh token, you can also specify the refresh token and token URI to allow the credentials to be automatically refreshed:

credentials = google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials(

There is a separate library, google-auth-oauthlib, that has some helpers for integrating with requests-oauthlib to provide support for obtaining user credentials. You can use google_auth_oauthlib.helpers.credentials_from_session() to obtain google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials from a requests_oauthlib.OAuth2Session as above:

from google_auth_oauthlib.helpers import credentials_from_session

google_auth_credentials = credentials_from_session(oauth2session)

You can also use google_auth_oauthlib.flow.Flow to perform the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Grant Flow to obtain credentials using requests-oauthlib.

Impersonated credentials

Impersonated Credentials allows one set of credentials issued to a user or service account to impersonate another. The source credentials must be granted the “Service Account Token Creator” IAM role.

from google.auth import impersonated_credentials

target_scopes = ['']
source_credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file(

target_credentials = impersonated_credentials.Credentials(
client = storage.Client(credentials=target_credentials)
buckets = client.list_buckets(project='your_project')
for bucket in buckets:

In the example above source_credentials does not have direct access to list buckets in the target project. Using ImpersonatedCredentials will allow the source_credentials to assume the identity of a target_principal that does have access.

Identity Tokens

Google OpenID Connect tokens are avaiable through Service Account, Impersonated, and Compute Engine. These tokens can be used to authenticate against Cloud Functions, Cloud Run, a user service behind Identity Aware Proxy or any other service capable of verifying a Google ID Token.


from google.oauth2 import service_account

target_audience = ''

creds = service_account.IDTokenCredentials.from_service_account_file(


from google.auth import compute_engine
import google.auth.transport.requests

target_audience = ''

request = google.auth.transport.requests.Request()
creds = compute_engine.IDTokenCredentials(request,


from google.auth import impersonated_credentials

# get target_credentials from a source_credential

target_audience = ''

creds = impersonated_credentials.IDTokenCredentials(

IDToken verification can be done for various type of IDTokens using the google.oauth2.id_token module

A sample end-to-end flow using an ID Token against a Cloud Run endpoint maybe

from google.oauth2 import id_token
from google.oauth2 import service_account
import google.auth
import google.auth.transport.requests
from google.auth.transport.requests import AuthorizedSession

target_audience = ''
url = ''

creds = service_account.IDTokenCredentials.from_service_account_file(
        '/path/to/svc.json', target_audience=target_audience)

authed_session = AuthorizedSession(creds)

# make authenticated request and print the response, status_code
resp = authed_session.get(url)

# to verify an ID Token
request = google.auth.transport.requests.Request()
token = creds.token

Making authenticated requests

Once you have credentials you can attach them to a transport. You can then use this transport to make authenticated requests to APIs. google-auth supports several different transports. Typically, it’s up to your application or an opinionated client library to decide which transport to use.


The recommended HTTP transport is google.auth.transport.requests which uses the Requests library. To make authenticated requests using Requests you use a custom Session object:

from google.auth.transport.requests import AuthorizedSession

authed_session = AuthorizedSession(credentials)

response = authed_session.get(


urllib3 is the underlying HTTP library used by Requests and can also be used with google-auth. urllib3’s interface isn’t as high-level as Requests but it can be useful in situations where you need more control over how HTTP requests are made. To make authenticated requests using urllib3 create an instance of google.auth.transport.urllib3.AuthorizedHttp:

from google.auth.transport.urllib3 import AuthorizedHttp

authed_http = AuthorizedHttp(credentials)

response = authed_http.request(
    'GET', '')

You can also construct your own urllib3.PoolManager instance and pass it to AuthorizedHttp:

import urllib3

http = urllib3.PoolManager()
authed_http = AuthorizedHttp(credentials, http)


gRPC is an RPC framework that uses Protocol Buffers over HTTP 2.0. google-auth can provide Call Credentials for gRPC. The easiest way to do this is to use google-auth to create the gRPC channel:

import google.auth.transport.grpc
import google.auth.transport.requests

http_request = google.auth.transport.requests.Request()

channel = google.auth.transport.grpc.secure_authorized_channel(
    credentials, http_request, '')


Even though gRPC is its own transport, you still need to use one of the other HTTP transports with gRPC. The reason is that most credential types need to make HTTP requests in order to refresh their access token. The sample above uses the Requests transport, but any HTTP transport can be used. Additionally, if you know that your credentials do not need to make HTTP requests in order to refresh (as is the case with jwt.Credentials) then you can specify None.

Alternatively, you can create the channel yourself and use google.auth.transport.grpc.AuthMetadataPlugin:

import grpc

metadata_plugin = AuthMetadataPlugin(credentials, http_request)

# Create a set of grpc.CallCredentials using the metadata plugin.
google_auth_credentials = grpc.metadata_call_credentials(

# Create SSL channel credentials.
ssl_credentials = grpc.ssl_channel_credentials()

# Combine the ssl credentials and the authorization credentials.
composite_credentials = grpc.composite_channel_credentials(
    ssl_credentials, google_auth_credentials)

channel = grpc.secure_channel(
    '', composite_credentials)

You can use this channel to make a gRPC stub that makes authenticated requests to a gRPC service:

from google.pubsub.v1 import pubsub_pb2

pubsub = pubsub_pb2.PublisherStub(channel)

response = pubsub.ListTopics(