google.auth.jwt module

JSON Web Tokens

Provides support for creating (encoding) and verifying (decoding) JWTs, especially JWTs generated and consumed by Google infrastructure.

See rfc7519 for more details on JWTs.

To encode a JWT use encode():

from google.auth import crypt
from google.auth import jwt

signer = crypt.Signer(private_key)
payload = {'some': 'payload'}
encoded = jwt.encode(signer, payload)

To decode a JWT and verify claims use decode():

claims = jwt.decode(encoded, certs=public_certs)

You can also skip verification:

claims = jwt.decode(encoded, verify=False)
encode(signer, payload, header=None, key_id=None)[source]

Make a signed JWT.

Parameters
  • signer (google.auth.crypt.Signer) – The signer used to sign the JWT.

  • payload (Mapping [ str, str ]) – The JWT payload.

  • header (Mapping [ str, str ]) – Additional JWT header payload.

  • key_id (str) – The key id to add to the JWT header. If the signer has a key id it will be used as the default. If this is specified it will override the signer’s key id.

Returns

The encoded JWT.

Return type

bytes

decode_header(token)[source]

Return the decoded header of a token.

No verification is done. This is useful to extract the key id from the header in order to acquire the appropriate certificate to verify the token.

Parameters

token (Union [ str, bytes ]) – the encoded JWT.

Returns

The decoded JWT header.

Return type

Mapping

decode(token, certs=None, verify=True, audience=None, clock_skew_in_seconds=0)[source]

Decode and verify a JWT.

Parameters
  • token (str) – The encoded JWT.

  • certs (Union [ str, bytes, Mapping [ str, Union [ str, bytes ] ] ]) – The certificate used to validate the JWT signature. If bytes or string, it must the the public key certificate in PEM format. If a mapping, it must be a mapping of key IDs to public key certificates in PEM format. The mapping must contain the same key ID that’s specified in the token’s header.

  • verify (bool) – Whether to perform signature and claim validation. Verification is done by default.

  • audience (str or list) – The audience claim, ‘aud’, that this JWT should contain. Or a list of audience claims. If None then the JWT’s ‘aud’ parameter is not verified.

  • clock_skew_in_seconds (int) – The clock skew used for iat and exp validation.

Returns

The deserialized JSON payload in the JWT.

Return type

Mapping [ str, str ]

Raises

ValueError – if any verification checks failed.

class Credentials(signer, issuer, subject, audience, additional_claims=None, token_lifetime=3600, quota_project_id=None)[source]

Bases: google.auth.credentials.Signing, google.auth.credentials.CredentialsWithQuotaProject

Credentials that use a JWT as the bearer token.

These credentials require an “audience” claim. This claim identifies the intended recipient of the bearer token.

The constructor arguments determine the claims for the JWT that is sent with requests. Usually, you’ll construct these credentials with one of the helper constructors as shown in the next section.

To create JWT credentials using a Google service account private key JSON file:

audience = 'https://pubsub.googleapis.com/google.pubsub.v1.Publisher'
credentials = jwt.Credentials.from_service_account_file(
    'service-account.json',
    audience=audience)

If you already have the service account file loaded and parsed:

service_account_info = json.load(open('service_account.json'))
credentials = jwt.Credentials.from_service_account_info(
    service_account_info,
    audience=audience)

Both helper methods pass on arguments to the constructor, so you can specify the JWT claims:

credentials = jwt.Credentials.from_service_account_file(
    'service-account.json',
    audience=audience,
    additional_claims={'meta': 'data'})

You can also construct the credentials directly if you have a Signer instance:

credentials = jwt.Credentials(
    signer,
    issuer='your-issuer',
    subject='your-subject',
    audience=audience)

The claims are considered immutable. If you want to modify the claims, you can easily create another instance using with_claims():

new_audience = (
    'https://pubsub.googleapis.com/google.pubsub.v1.Subscriber')
new_credentials = credentials.with_claims(audience=new_audience)
Parameters
  • signer (google.auth.crypt.Signer) – The signer used to sign JWTs.

  • issuer (str) – The iss claim.

  • subject (str) – The sub claim.

  • audience (str) – the aud claim. The intended audience for the credentials.

  • additional_claims (Mapping [ str, str ]) – Any additional claims for the JWT payload.

  • token_lifetime (int) – The amount of time in seconds for which the token is valid. Defaults to 1 hour.

  • quota_project_id (Optional [ str ]) – The project ID used for quota and billing.

classmethod from_service_account_info(info, **kwargs)[source]

Creates an Credentials instance from a dictionary.

Parameters
  • info (Mapping [ str, str ]) – The service account info in Google format.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

The constructed credentials.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.Credentials

Raises

ValueError – If the info is not in the expected format.

classmethod from_service_account_file(filename, **kwargs)[source]

Creates a Credentials instance from a service account .json file in Google format.

Parameters
  • filename (str) – The path to the service account .json file.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

The constructed credentials.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.Credentials

classmethod from_signing_credentials(credentials, audience, **kwargs)[source]

Creates a new google.auth.jwt.Credentials instance from an existing google.auth.credentials.Signing instance.

The new instance will use the same signer as the existing instance and will use the existing instance’s signer email as the issuer and subject by default.

Example:

svc_creds = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file(
    'service_account.json')
audience = (
    'https://pubsub.googleapis.com/google.pubsub.v1.Publisher')
jwt_creds = jwt.Credentials.from_signing_credentials(
    svc_creds, audience=audience)
Parameters
  • credentials (google.auth.credentials.Signing) – The credentials to use to construct the new credentials.

  • audience (str) – the aud claim. The intended audience for the credentials.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

A new Credentials instance.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.Credentials

with_claims(issuer=None, subject=None, audience=None, additional_claims=None)[source]

Returns a copy of these credentials with modified claims.

Parameters
  • issuer (str) – The iss claim. If unspecified the current issuer claim will be used.

  • subject (str) – The sub claim. If unspecified the current subject claim will be used.

  • audience (str) – the aud claim. If unspecified the current audience claim will be used.

  • additional_claims (Mapping [ str, str ]) – Any additional claims for the JWT payload. This will be merged with the current additional claims.

Returns

A new credentials instance.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.Credentials

with_quota_project(quota_project_id)[source]

Returns a copy of these credentials with a modified quota project.

Parameters

quota_project_id (str) – The project to use for quota and billing purposes

Returns

A new credentials instance.

Return type

google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials

refresh(request)[source]

Refreshes the access token.

Parameters

request (Any) – Unused.

sign_bytes(message)[source]

Signs the given message.

Parameters

message (bytes) – The message to sign.

Returns

The message’s cryptographic signature.

Return type

bytes

property signer_email

An email address that identifies the signer.

Type

Optional [ str ]

property signer

The signer used to sign bytes.

Type

google.auth.crypt.Signer

apply(headers, token=None)[source]

Apply the token to the authentication header.

Parameters
  • headers (Mapping) – The HTTP request headers.

  • token (Optional [ str ]) – If specified, overrides the current access token.

before_request(request, method, url, headers)[source]

Performs credential-specific before request logic.

Refreshes the credentials if necessary, then calls apply() to apply the token to the authentication header.

Parameters
  • request (google.auth.transport.Request) – The object used to make HTTP requests.

  • method (str) – The request’s HTTP method or the RPC method being invoked.

  • url (str) – The request’s URI or the RPC service’s URI.

  • headers (Mapping) – The request’s headers.

property expired

Checks if the credentials are expired.

Note that credentials can be invalid but not expired because Credentials with expiry set to None is considered to never expire.

property quota_project_id

Project to use for quota and billing purposes.

property valid

Checks the validity of the credentials.

This is True if the credentials have a token and the token is not expired.

token

The bearer token that can be used in HTTP headers to make authenticated requests.

Type

str

expiry

When the token expires and is no longer valid. If this is None, the token is assumed to never expire.

Type

Optional [ datetime ]

class OnDemandCredentials(signer, issuer, subject, additional_claims=None, token_lifetime=3600, max_cache_size=10, quota_project_id=None)[source]

Bases: google.auth.credentials.Signing, google.auth.credentials.CredentialsWithQuotaProject

On-demand JWT credentials.

Like Credentials, this class uses a JWT as the bearer token for authentication. However, this class does not require the audience at construction time. Instead, it will generate a new token on-demand for each request using the request URI as the audience. It caches tokens so that multiple requests to the same URI do not incur the overhead of generating a new token every time.

This behavior is especially useful for gRPC clients. A gRPC service may have multiple audience and gRPC clients may not know all of the audiences required for accessing a particular service. With these credentials, no knowledge of the audiences is required ahead of time.

Parameters
  • signer (google.auth.crypt.Signer) – The signer used to sign JWTs.

  • issuer (str) – The iss claim.

  • subject (str) – The sub claim.

  • additional_claims (Mapping [ str, str ]) – Any additional claims for the JWT payload.

  • token_lifetime (int) – The amount of time in seconds for which the token is valid. Defaults to 1 hour.

  • max_cache_size (int) – The maximum number of JWT tokens to keep in cache. Tokens are cached using cachetools.LRUCache.

  • quota_project_id (Optional [ str ]) – The project ID used for quota and billing.

classmethod from_service_account_info(info, **kwargs)[source]

Creates an OnDemandCredentials instance from a dictionary.

Parameters
  • info (Mapping [ str, str ]) – The service account info in Google format.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

The constructed credentials.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.OnDemandCredentials

Raises

ValueError – If the info is not in the expected format.

classmethod from_service_account_file(filename, **kwargs)[source]

Creates an OnDemandCredentials instance from a service account .json file in Google format.

Parameters
  • filename (str) – The path to the service account .json file.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

The constructed credentials.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.OnDemandCredentials

classmethod from_signing_credentials(credentials, **kwargs)[source]

Creates a new google.auth.jwt.OnDemandCredentials instance from an existing google.auth.credentials.Signing instance.

The new instance will use the same signer as the existing instance and will use the existing instance’s signer email as the issuer and subject by default.

Example:

svc_creds = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file(
    'service_account.json')
jwt_creds = jwt.OnDemandCredentials.from_signing_credentials(
    svc_creds)
Parameters
  • credentials (google.auth.credentials.Signing) – The credentials to use to construct the new credentials.

  • kwargs – Additional arguments to pass to the constructor.

Returns

A new Credentials instance.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.Credentials

with_claims(issuer=None, subject=None, additional_claims=None)[source]

Returns a copy of these credentials with modified claims.

Parameters
  • issuer (str) – The iss claim. If unspecified the current issuer claim will be used.

  • subject (str) – The sub claim. If unspecified the current subject claim will be used.

  • additional_claims (Mapping [ str, str ]) – Any additional claims for the JWT payload. This will be merged with the current additional claims.

Returns

A new credentials instance.

Return type

google.auth.jwt.OnDemandCredentials

with_quota_project(quota_project_id)[source]

Returns a copy of these credentials with a modified quota project.

Parameters

quota_project_id (str) – The project to use for quota and billing purposes

Returns

A new credentials instance.

Return type

google.oauth2.credentials.Credentials

property valid

Checks the validity of the credentials.

These credentials are always valid because it generates tokens on demand.

refresh(request)[source]

Raises an exception, these credentials can not be directly refreshed.

Parameters

request (Any) – Unused.

Raises

google.auth.RefreshError

before_request(request, method, url, headers)[source]

Performs credential-specific before request logic.

Parameters
  • request (Any) – Unused. JWT credentials do not need to make an HTTP request to refresh.

  • method (str) – The request’s HTTP method.

  • url (str) – The request’s URI. This is used as the audience claim when generating the JWT.

  • headers (Mapping) – The request’s headers.

sign_bytes(message)[source]

Signs the given message.

Parameters

message (bytes) – The message to sign.

Returns

The message’s cryptographic signature.

Return type

bytes

property signer_email

An email address that identifies the signer.

Type

Optional [ str ]

property signer

The signer used to sign bytes.

Type

google.auth.crypt.Signer

apply(headers, token=None)

Apply the token to the authentication header.

Parameters
  • headers (Mapping) – The HTTP request headers.

  • token (Optional [ str ]) – If specified, overrides the current access token.

property expired

Checks if the credentials are expired.

Note that credentials can be invalid but not expired because Credentials with expiry set to None is considered to never expire.

property quota_project_id

Project to use for quota and billing purposes.

token

The bearer token that can be used in HTTP headers to make authenticated requests.

Type

str

expiry

When the token expires and is no longer valid. If this is None, the token is assumed to never expire.

Type

Optional [ datetime ]