As of January 1, 2020 this library no longer supports Python 2 on the latest released version. Library versions released prior to that date will continue to be available. For more information please visit Python 2 support on Google Cloud.

Read-only Transactions via Snapshots

A Snapshot represents a read-only transaction: when multiple read operations are performed via a Snapshot, the results are consistent as of a particular point in time.

Beginning a Snapshot

To begin using a snapshot using the default “bound” (which is “strong”), meaning all reads are performed at a timestamp where all previously-committed transactions are visible:

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    ...

You can also specify a weaker bound, which can either be to perform all reads as of a given timestamp:

import datetime
from pytz import UTC
TIMESTAMP = datetime.datetime.utcnow().replace(tzinfo=UTC)

with database.snapshot(read_timestamp=TIMESTAMP) as snapshot:
    ...

or as of a given duration in the past:

import datetime
DURATION = datetime.timedelta(seconds=5)

with database.snapshot(exact_staleness=DURATION) as snapshot:
    ...

Single Use and Multiple Use Snapshots

In the context of read only transactions, read and execute_sql methods can be used multiple times if you specify multi_use=True in the constructor of the snapshot. However, multi_use=True is incompatible with either max_staleness and/or min_read_timestamp.

Otherwise multi_use defaults to False and the snapshot cannot be reused.

with database.snapshot(multi_use=True) as snapshot:
    ...

begin() can only be used on a snapshot with multi_use=True. In which case it is also necessary to call if you need to have multiple pending operations.

Read Table Data

To read data for selected rows from a table in the database, call read() which will return all rows specified in keyset, or fail if the result set is too large,

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    result = snapshot.read(
        table='table-name', columns=['first_name', 'last_name', 'age'],
        keyset=spanner.KeySet([['phred@example.com'], ['bharney@example.com']]))

    for row in result:
        print(row)

Note

Perform all iterations within the context of the with database.snapshot() block.

Execute a SQL Select Statement

To read data from tables in the database using a query, call execute_sql() which will return all rows matching the query, or fail if the result set is too large,

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    QUERY = (
        'SELECT e.first_name, e.last_name, p.telephone '
        'FROM employees as e, phones as p '
        'WHERE p.employee_id == e.employee_id')
    result = snapshot.execute_sql(QUERY)

    for row in result:
        print(row)

Note

Perform all iteration within the context of the with database.snapshot() block.

Next Step

Next, learn about Read-write Transactions.