As of January 1, 2020 this library no longer supports Python 2 on the latest released version. Library versions released prior to that date will continue to be available. For more information please visit Python 2 support on Google Cloud.

Blobs / Objects

Create / interact with Google Cloud Storage blobs.

class google.cloud.storage.blob.Blob(name, bucket, chunk_size=None, encryption_key=None, kms_key_name=None, generation=None)[source]

Bases: google.cloud.storage._helpers._PropertyMixin

A wrapper around Cloud Storage’s concept of an Object.

Parameters
  • name (str) – The name of the blob. This corresponds to the unique path of the object in the bucket. If bytes, will be converted to a unicode object. Blob / object names can contain any sequence of valid unicode characters, of length 1-1024 bytes when UTF-8 encoded.

  • bucket (google.cloud.storage.bucket.Bucket) – The bucket to which this blob belongs.

  • chunk_size (int) – (Optional) The size of a chunk of data whenever iterating (in bytes). This must be a multiple of 256 KB per the API specification. If not specified, the chunk_size of the blob itself is used. If that is not specified, a default value of 40 MB is used.

  • encryption_key (bytes) – (Optional) 32 byte encryption key for customer-supplied encryption. See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/encryption#customer-supplied.

  • kms_key_name (str) – (Optional) Resource name of Cloud KMS key used to encrypt the blob’s contents.

  • generation (long) – (Optional) If present, selects a specific revision of this object.

property name

Get the blob’s name.

STORAGE_CLASSES = ('STANDARD', 'NEARLINE', 'COLDLINE', 'ARCHIVE', 'MULTI_REGIONAL', 'REGIONAL')

Allowed values for storage_class.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects#storageClass https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/per-object-storage-class

Note

This list does not include ‘DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY’, which is only documented for buckets (and deprecated).

property acl

Create our ACL on demand.

property bucket

Bucket which contains the object.

Return type

Bucket

Returns

The object’s bucket.

property cache_control

HTTP ‘Cache-Control’ header for this object.

See RFC 7234 and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

property chunk_size

Get the blob’s default chunk size.

Return type

int or NoneType

Returns

The current blob’s chunk size, if it is set.

property client

The client bound to this blob.

property component_count

Number of underlying components that make up this object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

int or NoneType

Returns

The component count (in case of a composed object) or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server. This property will not be set on objects not created via compose.

compose(sources, client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)[source]

Concatenate source blobs into this one.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • sources (list of Blob) – Blobs whose contents will be composed into this blob.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (list of long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob. The list must match sources item-to-item.

  • if_metageneration_match (list of long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value. The list must match sources item-to-item.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Example

Compose blobs using generation match preconditions.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> bucket = client.bucket("bucket-name")
>>> blobs = [bucket.blob("blob-name-1"), bucket.blob("blob-name-2")]
>>> if_generation_match = [None] * len(blobs)
>>> if_generation_match[0] = "123"  # precondition for "blob-name-1"
>>> composed_blob = bucket.blob("composed-name")
>>> composed_blob.compose(blobs, if_generation_match)
property content_disposition

HTTP ‘Content-Disposition’ header for this object.

See RFC 6266 and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

property content_encoding

HTTP ‘Content-Encoding’ header for this object.

See RFC 7231 and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

property content_language

HTTP ‘Content-Language’ header for this object.

See BCP47 and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

property content_type

HTTP ‘Content-Type’ header for this object.

See RFC 2616 and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

property crc32c

CRC32C checksum for this object.

This returns the blob’s CRC32C checksum. To retrieve the value, first use a reload method of the Blob class which loads the blob’s properties from the server.

See RFC 4960 and API reference docs.

If not set before upload, the server will compute the hash.

Return type

str or NoneType

Example

Retrieve the crc32c hash of blob.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> bucket = client.get_bucket("my-bucket-name")
>>> blob = bucket.blob('my-blob')
>>> blob.crc32c  # return None
>>> blob.reload()
>>> blob.crc32c  # return crc32c hash
>>> # Another approach
>>> blob = bucket.get_blob('my-blob')
>>> blob.crc32c  # return crc32c hash
create_resumable_upload_session(content_type=None, size=None, origin=None, client=None, timeout=60, checksum=None)[source]

Create a resumable upload session.

Resumable upload sessions allow you to start an upload session from one client and complete the session in another. This method is called by the initiator to set the metadata and limits. The initiator then passes the session URL to the client that will upload the binary data. The client performs a PUT request on the session URL to complete the upload. This process allows untrusted clients to upload to an access-controlled bucket. For more details, see the documentation on signed URLs.

The content type of the upload will be determined in order of precedence:

  • The value passed in to this method (if not None)

  • The value stored on the current blob

  • The default value (‘application/octet-stream’)

Note

The effect of uploading to an existing blob depends on the “versioning” and “lifecycle” policies defined on the blob’s bucket. In the absence of those policies, upload will overwrite any existing contents.

See the object versioning and lifecycle API documents for details.

If encryption_key is set, the blob will be encrypted with a customer-supplied encryption key.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • size (int) – (Optional) The maximum number of bytes that can be uploaded using this session. If the size is not known when creating the session, this should be left blank.

  • content_type (str) – (Optional) Type of content being uploaded.

  • origin (str) – (Optional) If set, the upload can only be completed by a user-agent that uploads from the given origin. This can be useful when passing the session to a web client.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. After the upload is complete, the server-computed checksum of the resulting object will be checked and google.resumable_media.common.DataCorruption will be raised on a mismatch. On a validation failure, the client will attempt to delete the uploaded object automatically. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is None.

Return type

str

Returns

The resumable upload session URL. The upload can be completed by making an HTTP PUT request with the file’s contents.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.GoogleCloudError if the session creation response returns an error status.

property custom_time

Retrieve the custom time for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

datetime.datetime or NoneType

Returns

Datetime object parsed from RFC3339 valid timestamp, or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server (see reload()).

delete(client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)[source]

Deletes a blob from Cloud Storage.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.NotFound (propagated from google.cloud.storage.bucket.Bucket.delete_blob()).

download_as_bytes(client=None, start=None, end=None, raw_download=False, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum='md5')[source]

Download the contents of this blob as a bytes object.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • start (int) – (Optional) The first byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • end (int) – (Optional) The last byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • raw_download (bool) – (Optional) If true, download the object without any expansion.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. The response headers must contain a checksum of the requested type. If the headers lack an appropriate checksum (for instance in the case of transcoded or ranged downloads where the remote service does not know the correct checksum, including downloads where chunk_size is set) an INFO-level log will be emitted. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is “md5”.

Return type

bytes

Returns

The data stored in this blob.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.NotFound

download_as_string(client=None, start=None, end=None, raw_download=False, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60)[source]

(Deprecated) Download the contents of this blob as a bytes object.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Note

Deprecated alias for download_as_bytes().

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • start (int) – (Optional) The first byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • end (int) – (Optional) The last byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • raw_download (bool) – (Optional) If true, download the object without any expansion.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

Return type

bytes

Returns

The data stored in this blob.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.NotFound

download_as_text(client=None, start=None, end=None, raw_download=False, encoding=None, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60)[source]

Download the contents of this blob as text (not bytes).

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • start (int) – (Optional) The first byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • end (int) – (Optional) The last byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • raw_download (bool) – (Optional) If true, download the object without any expansion.

  • encoding (str) – (Optional) encoding to be used to decode the downloaded bytes. Defaults to the charset param of attr:content_type, or else to “utf-8”.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

Return type

text

Returns

The data stored in this blob, decoded to text.

download_to_file(file_obj, client=None, start=None, end=None, raw_download=False, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum='md5')[source]

DEPRECATED. Download the contents of this blob into a file-like object.

Note

If the server-set property, media_link, is not yet initialized, makes an additional API request to load it.

Downloading a file that has been encrypted with a customer-supplied encryption key:

from google.cloud.storage import Blob

client = storage.Client(project="my-project")
bucket = client.get_bucket("my-bucket")
encryption_key = "c7f32af42e45e85b9848a6a14dd2a8f6"
blob = Blob("secure-data", bucket, encryption_key=encryption_key)
blob.upload_from_string("my secret message.")
with open("/tmp/my-secure-file", "wb") as file_obj:
    client.download_to_file(blob, file_obj)

The encryption_key should be a str or bytes with a length of at least 32.

If the chunk_size of a current blob is None, will download data in single download request otherwise it will download the chunk_size of data in each request.

For more fine-grained control over the download process, check out google-resumable-media. For example, this library allows downloading parts of a blob rather than the whole thing.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • file_obj (file) – A file handle to which to write the blob’s data.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • start (int) – (Optional) The first byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • end (int) – (Optional) The last byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • raw_download (bool) – (Optional) If true, download the object without any expansion.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. The response headers must contain a checksum of the requested type. If the headers lack an appropriate checksum (for instance in the case of transcoded or ranged downloads where the remote service does not know the correct checksum, including downloads where chunk_size is set) an INFO-level log will be emitted. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is “md5”.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.NotFound

download_to_filename(filename, client=None, start=None, end=None, raw_download=False, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum='md5')[source]

Download the contents of this blob into a named file.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • filename (str) – A filename to be passed to open.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • start (int) – (Optional) The first byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • end (int) – (Optional) The last byte in a range to be downloaded.

  • raw_download (bool) – (Optional) If true, download the object without any expansion.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. The response headers must contain a checksum of the requested type. If the headers lack an appropriate checksum (for instance in the case of transcoded or ranged downloads where the remote service does not know the correct checksum, including downloads where chunk_size is set) an INFO-level log will be emitted. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is “md5”.

Raises

google.cloud.exceptions.NotFound

property encryption_key

Retrieve the customer-supplied encryption key for the object.

Return type

bytes or NoneType

Returns

The encryption key or None if no customer-supplied encryption key was used, or the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

property etag

Retrieve the ETag for the object.

See RFC 2616 (etags) and API reference docs.

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

The blob etag or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

property event_based_hold

Is an event-based hold active on the object?

See API reference docs.

If the property is not set locally, returns None.

Return type

bool or NoneType

exists(client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>)[source]

Determines whether or not this blob exists.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Return type

bool

Returns

True if the blob exists in Cloud Storage.

classmethod from_string(uri, client=None)[source]

Get a constructor for blob object by URI.

Parameters
  • uri (str) – The blob uri pass to get blob object.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

Return type

google.cloud.storage.blob.Blob

Returns

The blob object created.

Example

Get a constructor for blob object by URI.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> from google.cloud.storage.blob import Blob
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> blob = Blob.from_string("gs://bucket/object")
generate_signed_url(expiration=None, api_access_endpoint='https://storage.googleapis.com', method='GET', content_md5=None, content_type=None, response_disposition=None, response_type=None, generation=None, headers=None, query_parameters=None, client=None, credentials=None, version=None, service_account_email=None, access_token=None, virtual_hosted_style=False, bucket_bound_hostname=None, scheme='http')[source]

Generates a signed URL for this blob.

Note

If you are on Google Compute Engine, you can’t generate a signed URL using GCE service account. Follow Issue 50 for updates on this. If you’d like to be able to generate a signed URL from GCE, you can use a standard service account from a JSON file rather than a GCE service account.

If you have a blob that you want to allow access to for a set amount of time, you can use this method to generate a URL that is only valid within a certain time period.

If bucket_bound_hostname is set as an argument of api_access_endpoint, https works only if using a CDN.

Example

Generates a signed URL for this blob using bucket_bound_hostname and scheme.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> bucket = client.get_bucket('my-bucket-name')
>>> blob = bucket.get_blob('my-blob-name')
>>> url = blob.generate_signed_url(expiration='url-expiration-time', bucket_bound_hostname='mydomain.tld',
>>>                                  version='v4')
>>> url = blob.generate_signed_url(expiration='url-expiration-time', bucket_bound_hostname='mydomain.tld',
>>>                                  version='v4',scheme='https')  # If using ``CDN``

This is particularly useful if you don’t want publicly accessible blobs, but don’t want to require users to explicitly log in.

Parameters
  • expiration (Union[Integer, datetime.datetime, datetime.timedelta]) – Point in time when the signed URL should expire. If a datetime instance is passed without an explicit tzinfo set, it will be assumed to be UTC.

  • api_access_endpoint (str) – (Optional) URI base.

  • method (str) – The HTTP verb that will be used when requesting the URL.

  • content_md5 (str) – (Optional) The MD5 hash of the object referenced by resource.

  • content_type (str) – (Optional) The content type of the object referenced by resource.

  • response_disposition (str) – (Optional) Content disposition of responses to requests for the signed URL. For example, to enable the signed URL to initiate a file of blog.png, use the value 'attachment; filename=blob.png'.

  • response_type (str) – (Optional) Content type of responses to requests for the signed URL. Ignored if content_type is set on object/blob metadata.

  • generation (str) – (Optional) A value that indicates which generation of the resource to fetch.

  • headers (dict) – (Optional) Additional HTTP headers to be included as part of the signed URLs. See: https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/xml-api/reference-headers Requests using the signed URL must pass the specified header (name and value) with each request for the URL.

  • query_parameters (dict) – (Optional) Additional query parameters to be included as part of the signed URLs. See: https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/xml-api/reference-headers#query

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • credentials (google.auth.credentials.Credentials) – (Optional) The authorization credentials to attach to requests. These credentials identify this application to the service. If none are specified, the client will attempt to ascertain the credentials from the environment.

  • version (str) – (Optional) The version of signed credential to create. Must be one of ‘v2’ | ‘v4’.

  • service_account_email (str) – (Optional) E-mail address of the service account.

  • access_token (str) – (Optional) Access token for a service account.

  • virtual_hosted_style (bool) – (Optional) If true, then construct the URL relative the bucket’s virtual hostname, e.g., ‘<bucket-name>.storage.googleapis.com’.

  • bucket_bound_hostname (str) – (Optional) If passed, then construct the URL relative to the bucket-bound hostname. Value can be a bare or with scheme, e.g., ‘example.com’ or ‘http://example.com’. See: https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/request-endpoints#cname

  • scheme (str) – (Optional) If bucket_bound_hostname is passed as a bare hostname, use this value as the scheme. https will work only when using a CDN. Defaults to "http".

Raises

ValueError when version is invalid.

Raises

TypeError when expiration is not a valid type.

Raises

AttributeError if credentials is not an instance of google.auth.credentials.Signing.

Return type

str

Returns

A signed URL you can use to access the resource until expiration.

property generation

Retrieve the generation for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

int or NoneType

Returns

The generation of the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

get_iam_policy(client=None, requested_policy_version=None, timeout=60, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>)[source]

Retrieve the IAM policy for the object.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current object’s bucket.

  • requested_policy_version (int or NoneType) – (Optional) The version of IAM policies to request. If a policy with a condition is requested without setting this, the server will return an error. This must be set to a value of 3 to retrieve IAM policies containing conditions. This is to prevent client code that isn’t aware of IAM conditions from interpreting and modifying policies incorrectly. The service might return a policy with version lower than the one that was requested, based on the feature syntax in the policy fetched.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Return type

google.api_core.iam.Policy

Returns

the policy instance, based on the resource returned from the getIamPolicy API request.

property id

Retrieve the ID for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

The ID consists of the bucket name, object name, and generation number.

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

The ID of the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

property kms_key_name

Resource name of Cloud KMS key used to encrypt the blob’s contents.

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

The resource name or None if no Cloud KMS key was used, or the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

make_private(client=None)[source]

Update blob’s ACL, revoking read access for anonymous users.

Parameters

client (Client or NoneType) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

make_public(client=None)[source]

Update blob’s ACL, granting read access to anonymous users.

Parameters

client (Client or NoneType) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

property md5_hash

MD5 hash for this object.

This returns the blob’s MD5 hash. To retrieve the value, first use a reload method of the Blob class which loads the blob’s properties from the server.

See RFC 1321 and API reference docs.

If not set before upload, the server will compute the hash.

Return type

str or NoneType

Example

Retrieve the md5 hash of blob.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> bucket = client.get_bucket("my-bucket-name")
>>> blob = bucket.blob('my-blob')
>>> blob.md5_hash  # return None
>>> blob.reload()
>>> blob.md5_hash  # return md5 hash
>>> # Another approach
>>> blob = bucket.get_blob('my-blob')
>>> blob.md5_hash  # return md5 hash

Retrieve the media download URI for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

The media link for the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

property metadata

Retrieve arbitrary/application specific metadata for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Setter

Update arbitrary/application specific metadata for the object.

Getter

Retrieve arbitrary/application specific metadata for the object.

Return type

dict or NoneType

Returns

The metadata associated with the blob or None if the property is not set.

property metageneration

Retrieve the metageneration for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

int or NoneType

Returns

The metageneration of the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

open(mode='r', chunk_size=None, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None, **kwargs)[source]

Create a file handler for file-like I/O to or from this blob.

This method can be used as a context manager, just like Python’s built-in ‘open()’ function.

While reading, as with other read methods, if blob.generation is not set the most recent blob generation will be used. Because the file-like IO reader downloads progressively in chunks, this could result in data from multiple versions being mixed together. If this is a concern, use either bucket.get_blob(), or blob.reload(), which will download the latest generation number and set it; or, if the generation is known, set it manually, for instance with bucket.blob(generation=123456).

Checksumming (hashing) to verify data integrity is disabled for reads using this feature because reads are implemented using request ranges, which do not provide checksums to validate. See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/hashes-etags for details.

Parameters
  • mode (str) – (Optional) A mode string, as per standard Python open() semantics.The first character must be ‘r’, to open the blob for reading, or ‘w’ to open it for writing. The second character, if present, must be ‘t’ for (unicode) text mode, or ‘b’ for bytes mode. If the second character is omitted, text mode is the default.

  • chunk_size (long) – (Optional) For reads, the minimum number of bytes to read at a time. If fewer bytes than the chunk_size are requested, the remainder is buffered. For writes, the maximum number of bytes to buffer before sending data to the server, and the size of each request when data is sent. Writes are implemented as a “resumable upload”, so chunk_size for writes must be exactly a multiple of 256KiB as with other resumable uploads. The default is 40 MiB.

  • encoding (str) – (Optional) For text mode only, the name of the encoding that the stream will be decoded or encoded with. If omitted, it defaults to locale.getpreferredencoding(False).

  • errors (str) – (Optional) For text mode only, an optional string that specifies how encoding and decoding errors are to be handled. Pass ‘strict’ to raise a ValueError exception if there is an encoding error (the default of None has the same effect), or pass ‘ignore’ to ignore errors. (Note that ignoring encoding errors can lead to data loss.) Other more rarely-used options are also available; see the Python ‘io’ module documentation for ‘io.TextIOWrapper’ for a complete list.

  • newline (str) – (Optional) For text mode only, controls how line endings are handled. It can be None, ‘’, ‘n’, ‘r’, and ‘rn’. If None, reads use “universal newline mode” and writes use the system default. See the Python ‘io’ module documentation for ‘io.TextIOWrapper’ for details.

  • kwargs – Keyword arguments to pass to the underlying API calls. For both uploads and downloads, the following arguments are supported: “if_generation_match”, “if_generation_not_match”, “if_metageneration_match”, “if_metageneration_not_match”, “timeout”. For uploads only, the following additional arguments are supported: “content_type”, “num_retries”, “predefined_acl”, “checksum”.

Returns

A ‘BlobReader’ or ‘BlobWriter’ from ‘google.cloud.storage.fileio’, or an ‘io.TextIOWrapper’ around one of those classes, depending on the ‘mode’ argument.

Example

Read from a text blob by using open() as context manager.

Using bucket.get_blob() fetches metadata such as the generation, which prevents race conditions in case the blob is modified.

>>> from google.cloud import storage
>>> client = storage.Client()
>>> bucket = client.bucket("bucket-name")
>>> blob = bucket.get_blob("blob-name.txt")
>>> with blob.open("rt") as f:
>>>     print(f.read())
property owner

Retrieve info about the owner of the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

dict or NoneType

Returns

Mapping of owner’s role/ID, or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

patch(client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)

Sends all changed properties in a PATCH request.

Updates the _properties with the response from the backend.

If user_project is set, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client or NoneType) – the client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current object.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

property path

Getter property for the URL path to this Blob.

Return type

str

Returns

The URL path to this Blob.

static path_helper(bucket_path, blob_name)[source]

Relative URL path for a blob.

Parameters
  • bucket_path (str) – The URL path for a bucket.

  • blob_name (str) – The name of the blob.

Return type

str

Returns

The relative URL path for blob_name.

property public_url

The public URL for this blob.

Use make_public() to enable anonymous access via the returned URL.

Return type

string

Returns

The public URL for this blob.

reload(client=None, projection='noAcl', timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>)

Reload properties from Cloud Storage.

If user_project is set, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client or NoneType) – the client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current object.

  • projection (str) – (Optional) If used, must be ‘full’ or ‘noAcl’. Defaults to 'noAcl'. Specifies the set of properties to return.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

property retention_expiration_time

Retrieve timestamp at which the object’s retention period expires.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

datetime.datetime or NoneType

Returns

Datetime object parsed from RFC3339 valid timestamp, or None if the property is not set locally.

rewrite(source, token=None, client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, if_source_generation_match=None, if_source_generation_not_match=None, if_source_metageneration_match=None, if_source_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)[source]

Rewrite source blob into this one.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • source (Blob) – blob whose contents will be rewritten into this blob.

  • token (str) – (Optional) Token returned from an earlier, not-completed call to rewrite the same source blob. If passed, result will include updated status, total bytes written.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the object.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live object exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the object.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • if_source_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s generation matches the given value.

  • if_source_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s generation does not match the given value.

  • if_source_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_source_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Return type

tuple

Returns

(token, bytes_rewritten, total_bytes), where token is a rewrite token (None if the rewrite is complete), bytes_rewritten is the number of bytes rewritten so far, and total_bytes is the total number of bytes to be rewritten.

Retrieve the URI for the object.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

The self link for the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

set_iam_policy(policy, client=None, timeout=60, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)[source]

Update the IAM policy for the bucket.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • policy (google.api_core.iam.Policy) – policy instance used to update bucket’s IAM policy.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Return type

google.api_core.iam.Policy

Returns

the policy instance, based on the resource returned from the setIamPolicy API request.

property size

Size of the object, in bytes.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

int or NoneType

Returns

The size of the blob or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server.

property storage_class

Retrieve the storage class for the object.

This can only be set at blob / object creation time. If you’d like to change the storage class after the blob / object already exists in a bucket, call update_storage_class() (which uses rewrite()).

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/storage-classes

Return type

str or NoneType

Returns

If set, one of STANDARD_STORAGE_CLASS, NEARLINE_STORAGE_CLASS, COLDLINE_STORAGE_CLASS, ARCHIVE_STORAGE_CLASS, MULTI_REGIONAL_LEGACY_STORAGE_CLASS, REGIONAL_LEGACY_STORAGE_CLASS, DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY_STORAGE_CLASS, else None.

property temporary_hold

Is a temporary hold active on the object?

See API reference docs.

If the property is not set locally, returns None.

Return type

bool or NoneType

test_iam_permissions(permissions, client=None, timeout=60, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>)[source]

API call: test permissions

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • permissions (list of string) – the permissions to check

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current bucket.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

Return type

list of string

Returns

the permissions returned by the testIamPermissions API request.

property time_created

Retrieve the timestamp at which the object was created.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

datetime.datetime or NoneType

Returns

Datetime object parsed from RFC3339 valid timestamp, or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server (see reload()).

property time_deleted

Retrieve the timestamp at which the object was deleted.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

datetime.datetime or NoneType

Returns

Datetime object parsed from RFC3339 valid timestamp, or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server (see reload()). If the blob has not been deleted, this will never be set.

update(client=None, timeout=60, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)

Sends all properties in a PUT request.

Updates the _properties with the response from the backend.

If user_project is set, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • client (Client or NoneType) – the client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the current object.

  • timeout (float or tuple) –

    (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the server response.

    Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

update_storage_class(new_class, client=None, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, if_source_generation_match=None, if_source_generation_not_match=None, if_source_metageneration_match=None, if_source_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, retry=<google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy object>)[source]

Update blob’s storage class via a rewrite-in-place. This helper will wait for the rewrite to complete before returning, so it may take some time for large files.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/per-object-storage-class

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • new_class (str) – new storage class for the object. One of: NEARLINE_STORAGE_CLASS, COLDLINE_STORAGE_CLASS, ARCHIVE_STORAGE_CLASS, STANDARD_STORAGE_CLASS, MULTI_REGIONAL_LEGACY_STORAGE_CLASS, or REGIONAL_LEGACY_STORAGE_CLASS.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the object.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live object exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the object.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the destination object’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • if_source_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s generation matches the given value.

  • if_source_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s generation does not match the given value.

  • if_source_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_source_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Makes the operation conditional on whether the source object’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • retry (google.api_core.retry.Retry or google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy) –

    (Optional) How to retry the RPC. A None value will disable retries. A google.api_core.retry.Retry value will enable retries, and the object will define retriable response codes and errors and configure backoff and timeout options.

    A google.cloud.storage.retry.ConditionalRetryPolicy value wraps a Retry object and activates it only if certain conditions are met. This class exists to provide safe defaults for RPC calls that are not technically safe to retry normally (due to potential data duplication or other side-effects) but become safe to retry if a condition such as if_metageneration_match is set.

    See the retry.py source code and docstrings in this package (google.cloud.storage.retry) for information on retry types and how to configure them.

property updated

Retrieve the timestamp at which the object was updated.

See https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/json_api/v1/objects

Return type

datetime.datetime or NoneType

Returns

Datetime object parsed from RFC3339 valid timestamp, or None if the blob’s resource has not been loaded from the server (see reload()).

upload_from_file(file_obj, rewind=False, size=None, content_type=None, num_retries=None, client=None, predefined_acl=None, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum=None)[source]

Upload the contents of this blob from a file-like object.

The content type of the upload will be determined in order of precedence:

  • The value passed in to this method (if not None)

  • The value stored on the current blob

  • The default value (‘application/octet-stream’)

Note

The effect of uploading to an existing blob depends on the “versioning” and “lifecycle” policies defined on the blob’s bucket. In the absence of those policies, upload will overwrite any existing contents.

See the object versioning and lifecycle API documents for details.

Uploading a file with a customer-supplied encryption key:

from google.cloud.storage import Blob

client = storage.Client(project="my-project")
bucket = client.get_bucket("my-bucket")
encryption_key = "aa426195405adee2c8081bb9e7e74b19"
blob = Blob("secure-data", bucket, encryption_key=encryption_key)
with open("my-file", "rb") as my_file:
    blob.upload_from_file(my_file)

The encryption_key should be a str or bytes with a length of at least 32.

If the size of the data to be uploaded exceeds 8 MB a resumable media request will be used, otherwise the content and the metadata will be uploaded in a single multipart upload request.

For more fine-grained over the upload process, check out google-resumable-media.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • file_obj (file) – A file handle open for reading.

  • rewind (bool) – If True, seek to the beginning of the file handle before writing the file to Cloud Storage.

  • size (int) – The number of bytes to be uploaded (which will be read from file_obj). If not provided, the upload will be concluded once file_obj is exhausted.

  • content_type (str) – (Optional) Type of content being uploaded.

  • num_retries (int) – Number of upload retries. By default, only uploads with if_metageneration_match set will be retried, as uploads without the argument are not guaranteed to be idempotent. Setting num_retries will override this default behavior and guarantee retries even when if_metageneration_match is not set. (Deprecated: This argument will be removed in a future release.)

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • predefined_acl (str) – (Optional) Predefined access control list

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. If the upload is completed in a single request, the checksum will be entirely precomputed and the remote server will handle verification and error handling. If the upload is too large and must be transmitted in multiple requests, the checksum will be incrementally computed and the client will handle verification and error handling, raising google.resumable_media.common.DataCorruption on a mismatch and attempting to delete the corrupted file. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is None.

Raises

GoogleCloudError if the upload response returns an error status.

upload_from_filename(filename, content_type=None, num_retries=None, client=None, predefined_acl=None, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum=None)[source]

Upload this blob’s contents from the content of a named file.

The content type of the upload will be determined in order of precedence:

  • The value passed in to this method (if not None)

  • The value stored on the current blob

  • The value given by mimetypes.guess_type

  • The default value (‘application/octet-stream’)

Note

The effect of uploading to an existing blob depends on the “versioning” and “lifecycle” policies defined on the blob’s bucket. In the absence of those policies, upload will overwrite any existing contents.

See the object versioning and lifecycle API documents for details.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • filename (str) – The path to the file.

  • content_type (str) – (Optional) Type of content being uploaded.

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • num_retries (int) – Number of upload retries. By default, only uploads with if_metageneration_match set will be retried, as uploads without the argument are not guaranteed to be idempotent. Setting num_retries will override this default behavior and guarantee retries even when if_metageneration_match is not set. (Deprecated: This argument will be removed in a future release.)

  • predefined_acl (str) – (Optional) Predefined access control list

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. If the upload is completed in a single request, the checksum will be entirely precomputed and the remote server will handle verification and error handling. If the upload is too large and must be transmitted in multiple requests, the checksum will be incrementally computed and the client will handle verification and error handling, raising google.resumable_media.common.DataCorruption on a mismatch and attempting to delete the corrupted file. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is None.

upload_from_string(data, content_type='text/plain', num_retries=None, client=None, predefined_acl=None, if_generation_match=None, if_generation_not_match=None, if_metageneration_match=None, if_metageneration_not_match=None, timeout=60, checksum=None)[source]

Upload contents of this blob from the provided string.

Note

The effect of uploading to an existing blob depends on the “versioning” and “lifecycle” policies defined on the blob’s bucket. In the absence of those policies, upload will overwrite any existing contents.

See the object versioning and lifecycle API documents for details.

If user_project is set on the bucket, bills the API request to that project.

Parameters
  • data (bytes or str) – The data to store in this blob. If the value is text, it will be encoded as UTF-8.

  • content_type (str) – (Optional) Type of content being uploaded. Defaults to 'text/plain'.

  • num_retries (int) – Number of upload retries. By default, only uploads with if_metageneration_match set will be retried, as uploads without the argument are not guaranteed to be idempotent. Setting num_retries will override this default behavior and guarantee retries even when if_metageneration_match is not set. (Deprecated: This argument will be removed in a future release.)

  • client (Client) – (Optional) The client to use. If not passed, falls back to the client stored on the blob’s bucket.

  • predefined_acl (str) – (Optional) Predefined access control list

  • if_generation_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation matches the given value. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there are no live versions of the blob.

  • if_generation_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current generation does not match the given value. If no live blob exists, the precondition fails. Setting to 0 makes the operation succeed only if there is a live version of the blob.

  • if_metageneration_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration matches the given value.

  • if_metageneration_not_match (long) – (Optional) Make the operation conditional on whether the blob’s current metageneration does not match the given value.

  • timeout (float or tuple) – (Optional) The number of seconds the transport should wait for the server response. Depending on the retry strategy, a request may be repeated several times using the same timeout each time. Can also be passed as a tuple (connect_timeout, read_timeout). See requests.Session.request() documentation for details.

  • checksum (str) – (Optional) The type of checksum to compute to verify the integrity of the object. If the upload is completed in a single request, the checksum will be entirely precomputed and the remote server will handle verification and error handling. If the upload is too large and must be transmitted in multiple requests, the checksum will be incrementally computed and the client will handle verification and error handling, raising google.resumable_media.common.DataCorruption on a mismatch and attempting to delete the corrupted file. Supported values are “md5”, “crc32c” and None. The default is None.

property user_project

Project ID billed for API requests made via this blob.

Derived from bucket’s value.

Return type

str