As of January 1, 2020 this library no longer supports Python 2 on the latest released version. Library versions released prior to that date will continue to be available. For more information please visit Python 2 support on Google Cloud.

Table

User-friendly container for Google Cloud Bigtable Table.

class google.cloud.bigtable.table.ClusterState(replication_state)[source]

Bases: object

Representation of a Cluster State.

Parameters

replication_state (int) – enum value for cluster state Possible replications_state values are 0 for STATE_NOT_KNOWN: The replication state of the table is unknown in this cluster. 1 for INITIALIZING: The cluster was recently created, and the table must finish copying over pre-existing data from other clusters before it can begin receiving live replication updates and serving Data API requests. 2 for PLANNED_MAINTENANCE: The table is temporarily unable to serve Data API requests from this cluster due to planned internal maintenance. 3 for UNPLANNED_MAINTENANCE: The table is temporarily unable to serve Data API requests from this cluster due to unplanned or emergency maintenance. 4 for READY: The table can serve Data API requests from this cluster. Depending on replication delay, reads may not immediately reflect the state of the table in other clusters.

__eq__(other)[source]

Checks if two ClusterState instances(self and other) are equal on the basis of instance variable ‘replication_state’.

Parameters

other (ClusterState) – ClusterState instance to compare with.

Return type

Boolean value

Returns

True if two cluster state instances have same replication_state.

__ne__(other)[source]

Checks if two ClusterState instances(self and other) are not equal.

Parameters

other (ClusterState.) – ClusterState instance to compare with.

Return type

Boolean value.

Returns

True if two cluster state instances are not equal.

__repr__()[source]

Representation of cluster state instance as string value for cluster state.

Return type

ClusterState instance

Returns

ClusterState instance as representation of string value for cluster state.

google.cloud.bigtable.table.DEFAULT_RETRY = <google.api_core.retry.Retry object>

The default retry strategy to be used on retry-able errors.

Used by mutate_rows().

class google.cloud.bigtable.table.Table(table_id, instance, mutation_timeout=None, app_profile_id=None)[source]

Bases: object

Representation of a Google Cloud Bigtable Table.

Note

We don’t define any properties on a table other than the name. The only other fields are column_families and granularity, The column_families are not stored locally and granularity is an enum with only one value.

We can use a Table to:

Parameters
  • table_id (str) – The ID of the table.

  • instance (Instance) – The instance that owns the table.

  • app_profile_id (str) – (Optional) The unique name of the AppProfile.

append_row(row_key)[source]

Create a AppendRow associated with this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

row_keys = [b"row_key_1", b"row_key_2"]
row1_obj = table.append_row(row_keys[0])
row2_obj = table.append_row(row_keys[1])
Parameters

row_key (bytes) – The key for the row being created.

Returns

A row owned by this table.

backup(backup_id, cluster_id=None, expire_time=None)[source]

Factory to create a Backup linked to this Table.

Parameters
  • backup_id (str) – The ID of the Backup to be created.

  • cluster_id (str) – (Optional) The ID of the Cluster. Required for calling ‘delete’, ‘exists’ etc. methods.

  • expire_time (datetime.datetime) – (Optional) The expiration time of this new Backup. Required, if the create method needs to be called.

Return type

Backup

Returns

A backup linked to this table.

column_family(column_family_id, gc_rule=None)[source]

Factory to create a column family associated with this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)

table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
column_family_obj = table.column_family(COLUMN_FAMILY_ID)
Parameters
  • column_family_id (str) – The ID of the column family. Must be of the form [_a-zA-Z0-9][-_.a-zA-Z0-9]*.

  • gc_rule (GarbageCollectionRule) – (Optional) The garbage collection settings for this column family.

Return type

ColumnFamily

Returns

A column family owned by this table.

conditional_row(row_key, filter_)[source]

Create a ConditionalRow associated with this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client
from google.cloud.bigtable.row_filters import PassAllFilter

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

row_keys = [b"row_key_1", b"row_key_2"]
filter_ = PassAllFilter(True)
row1_obj = table.conditional_row(row_keys[0], filter_=filter_)
row2_obj = table.conditional_row(row_keys[1], filter_=filter_)
Parameters
  • row_key (bytes) – The key for the row being created.

  • filter (RowFilter) – (Optional) Filter to be used for conditional mutations. See ConditionalRow for more details.

Returns

A row owned by this table.

create(initial_split_keys=[], column_families={})[source]

Creates this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client
from google.cloud.bigtable import column_family

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)

# Create table without Column families.
table1 = instance.table("table_id1")
table1.create()

# Create table with Column families.
table2 = instance.table("table_id2")
# Define the GC policy to retain only the most recent 2 versions.
max_versions_rule = column_family.MaxVersionsGCRule(2)
table2.create(column_families={"cf1": max_versions_rule})

Note

A create request returns a _generated.table.Table but we don’t use this response.

Parameters
  • initial_split_keys (list) – (Optional) list of row keys in bytes that will be used to initially split the table into several tablets.

  • column_families (dict) – (Optional) A map columns to create. The key is the column_id str and the value is a GarbageCollectionRule

delete()[source]

Delete this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table("table_id_del")

table.delete()
direct_row(row_key)[source]

Create a DirectRow associated with this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

row_keys = [b"row_key_1", b"row_key_2"]
row1_obj = table.direct_row(row_keys[0])
row2_obj = table.direct_row(row_keys[1])
Parameters

row_key (bytes) – The key for the row being created.

Returns

A row owned by this table.

drop_by_prefix(row_key_prefix, timeout=None)[source]

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
row_key_prefix = b"row_key_2"
table.drop_by_prefix(row_key_prefix, timeout=200)
Parameters
  • row_key_prefix (bytes) – Delete all rows that start with this row key prefix. Prefix cannot be zero length.

  • timeout (float) – (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the request to complete.

Raise

google.api_core.exceptions.GoogleAPICallError: If the request failed for any reason. google.api_core.exceptions.RetryError: If the request failed due to a retryable error and retry attempts failed. ValueError: If the parameters are invalid.

exists()[source]

Check whether the table exists.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
table_exists = table.exists()
Return type

bool

Returns

True if the table exists, else False.

get_cluster_states()[source]

List the cluster states owned by this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

get_cluster_states = table.get_cluster_states()
Return type

dict

Returns

Dictionary of cluster states for this table. Keys are cluster ids and values are :class: ‘ClusterState’ instances.

get_encryption_info()[source]

List the encryption info for each cluster owned by this table.

Gets the current encryption info for the table across all of the clusters. The returned dict will be keyed by cluster id and contain a status for all of the keys in use.

Return type

dict

Returns

Dictionary of encryption info for this table. Keys are cluster ids and values are tuples of google.cloud.bigtable.encryption.EncryptionInfo instances.

get_iam_policy()[source]

Gets the IAM access control policy for this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table("table_id_iam_policy")
policy = table.get_iam_policy()
Return type

google.cloud.bigtable.policy.Policy

Returns

The current IAM policy of this table.

list_backups(cluster_id=None, filter_=None, order_by=None, page_size=0)[source]

List Backups for this Table.

Parameters
  • cluster_id (str) – (Optional) Specifies a single cluster to list Backups from. If none is specified, the returned list contains all the Backups in this Instance.

  • filter (str) –

    (Optional) A filter expression that filters backups

    listed in the response. The expression must specify the field name, a comparison operator, and the value that you want to use for filtering. The value must be a string, a number, or a boolean. The comparison operator must be <, >, <=, >=, !=, =, or :. Colon ‘:’ represents a HAS operator which is roughly synonymous with equality. Filter rules are case insensitive.

    The fields eligible for filtering are:

    • name

    • source_table

    • state

    • start_time (values of the format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ)

    • end_time (values of the format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ)

    • expire_time (values of the format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ)

    • size_bytes

      To filter on multiple expressions, provide each separate expression within parentheses. By default, each expression is an AND expression. However, you can include AND, OR, and NOT expressions explicitly.

      Some examples of using filters are:

    • name:"exact" –> The Backup name is the string “exact”.

    • name:howl –> The Backup name contains the string “howl”

    • source_table:prod –> The source table’s name contains

      the string “prod”.

    • state:CREATING –> The Backup is pending creation.

    • state:READY –> The Backup is created and ready for use.

    • (name:howl) AND (start_time < "2020-05-28T14:50:00Z")

      –> The Backup name contains the string “howl” and the Backup start time is before 2020-05-28T14:50:00Z.

    • size_bytes > 10000000000 –> The Backup size is greater

      than 10GB

  • order_by (str) –

    (Optional) An expression for specifying the sort order of the results of the request. The string value should specify one or more fields in Backup. The full syntax is described at https://aip.dev/132#ordering.

    Fields supported are: * name * source_table * expire_time * start_time * end_time * size_bytes * state

    For example, “start_time”. The default sorting order is ascending. To specify descending order for the field, a suffix ” desc” should be appended to the field name. For example, “start_time desc”. Redundant space characters in the syntax are insigificant. If order_by is empty, results will be sorted by start_time in descending order starting from the most recently created backup.

  • page_size (int) – (Optional) The maximum number of resources contained in the underlying API response. If page streaming is performed per-resource, this parameter does not affect the return value. If page streaming is performed per-page, this determines the maximum number of resources in a page.

Return type

Iterator

Returns

Iterator of Backup resources within the current Instance.

Raises

ValueError if one of the returned Backups’ name is not of the expected format.

list_column_families()[source]

List the column families owned by this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

column_family_list = table.list_column_families()
Return type

dict

Returns

Dictionary of column families attached to this table. Keys are strings (column family names) and values are ColumnFamily instances.

Raises

ValueError if the column family name from the response does not agree with the computed name from the column family ID.

mutate_rows(rows, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>, timeout=<object object>)[source]

Mutates multiple rows in bulk.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
row_keys = [
    b"row_key_1",
    b"row_key_2",
    b"row_key_3",
    b"row_key_4",
    b"row_key_20",
    b"row_key_22",
    b"row_key_200",
]
col_name = b"col-name1"
rows = []
for i, row_key in enumerate(row_keys):
    value = "value_{}".format(i).encode()
    row = table.row(row_key)
    row.set_cell(
        COLUMN_FAMILY_ID, col_name, value, timestamp=datetime.datetime.utcnow()
    )
    rows.append(row)
response = table.mutate_rows(rows)
# validate that all rows written successfully
for i, status in enumerate(response):
    if status.code != 0:
        print("Row number {} failed to write".format(i))

The method tries to update all specified rows. If some of the rows weren’t updated, it would not remove mutations. They can be applied to the row separately. If row mutations finished successfully, they would be cleaned up.

Optionally, a retry strategy can be specified to re-attempt mutations on rows that return transient errors. This method will retry until all rows succeed or until the request deadline is reached. To specify a retry strategy of “do-nothing”, a deadline of 0.0 can be specified.

Parameters
  • rows (list) – List or other iterable of DirectRow instances.

  • retry (Retry) – (Optional) Retry delay and deadline arguments. To override, the default value DEFAULT_RETRY can be used and modified with the with_delay() method or the with_deadline() method.

  • timeout (float) – number of seconds bounding retries for the call

Return type

list

Returns

A list of response statuses (google.rpc.status_pb2.Status) corresponding to success or failure of each row mutation sent. These will be in the same order as the rows.

mutations_batcher(flush_count=1000, max_row_bytes=5242880)[source]

Factory to create a mutation batcher associated with this instance.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
batcher = table.mutations_batcher()
Parameters
  • flush_count (int) – (Optional) Maximum number of rows per batch. If it reaches the max number of rows it calls finish_batch() to mutate the current row batch. Default is FLUSH_COUNT (1000 rows).

  • max_row_bytes (int) – (Optional) Max number of row mutations size to flush. If it reaches the max number of row mutations size it calls finish_batch() to mutate the current row batch. Default is MAX_ROW_BYTES (5 MB).

property name

Table name used in requests.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)

table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
table_name = table.name

Note

This property will not change if table_id does not, but the return value is not cached.

The table name is of the form

"projects/../instances/../tables/{table_id}"

Return type

str

Returns

The table name.

read_row(row_key, filter_=None)[source]

Read a single row from this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
row_key = "row_key_1"
row = table.read_row(row_key)
Parameters
  • row_key (bytes) – The key of the row to read from.

  • filter (RowFilter) – (Optional) The filter to apply to the contents of the row. If unset, returns the entire row.

Return type

PartialRowData, NoneType

Returns

The contents of the row if any chunks were returned in the response, otherwise None.

Raises

ValueError if a commit row chunk is never encountered.

read_rows(start_key=None, end_key=None, limit=None, filter_=None, end_inclusive=False, row_set=None, retry=<google.api_core.retry.Retry object>)[source]

Read rows from this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

# Read full table
partial_rows = table.read_rows()

# Read row's value
total_rows = []
for row in partial_rows:
    cell = row.cells[COLUMN_FAMILY_ID][col_name][0]
    print(cell.value.decode("utf-8"))
    total_rows.append(cell)
Parameters
  • start_key (bytes) – (Optional) The beginning of a range of row keys to read from. The range will include start_key. If left empty, will be interpreted as the empty string.

  • end_key (bytes) – (Optional) The end of a range of row keys to read from. The range will not include end_key. If left empty, will be interpreted as an infinite string.

  • limit (int) – (Optional) The read will terminate after committing to N rows’ worth of results. The default (zero) is to return all results.

  • filter (RowFilter) – (Optional) The filter to apply to the contents of the specified row(s). If unset, reads every column in each row.

  • end_inclusive (bool) – (Optional) Whether the end_key should be considered inclusive. The default is False (exclusive).

  • row_set (RowSet) – (Optional) The row set containing multiple row keys and row_ranges.

  • retry (Retry) – (Optional) Retry delay and deadline arguments. To override, the default value DEFAULT_RETRY_READ_ROWS can be used and modified with the with_delay() method or the with_deadline() method.

Return type

PartialRowsData

Returns

A PartialRowsData a generator for consuming the streamed results.

restore(new_table_id, cluster_id=None, backup_id=None, backup_name=None)[source]

Creates a new Table by restoring from the Backup specified by either backup_id or backup_name. The returned long-running operation can be used to track the progress of the operation and to cancel it. The response type is Table, if successful.

Parameters
  • new_table_id (str) – The ID of the Table to create and restore to. This Table must not already exist.

  • cluster_id (str) – The ID of the Cluster containing the Backup. This parameter gets overriden by backup_name, if the latter is provided.

  • backup_id (str) – The ID of the Backup to restore the Table from. This parameter gets overriden by backup_name, if the latter is provided.

  • backup_name (str) – (Optional) The full name of the Backup to restore from. If specified, it overrides the cluster_id and backup_id parameters even of such specified.

Returns

An instance of _OperationFuture.

Raises

google.api_core.exceptions.AlreadyExists: If the table already exists.

Raises

google.api_core.exceptions.GoogleAPICallError: If the request failed for any reason.

Raises

google.api_core.exceptions.RetryError: If the request failed due to a retryable error and retry attempts failed.

Raises

ValueError: If the parameters are invalid.

row(row_key, filter_=None, append=False)[source]

Factory to create a row associated with this table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)

row_keys = [b"row_key_1", b"row_key_2"]
row1_obj = table.row(row_keys[0])
row2_obj = table.row(row_keys[1])

Warning

At most one of filter_ and append can be used in a Row.

Parameters
  • row_key (bytes) – The key for the row being created.

  • filter (RowFilter) – (Optional) Filter to be used for conditional mutations. See ConditionalRow for more details.

  • append (bool) – (Optional) Flag to determine if the row should be used for append mutations.

Return type

Row

Returns

A row owned by this table.

Raises

ValueError if both filter_ and append are used.

sample_row_keys()[source]

Read a sample of row keys in the table.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)

table = instance.table("table_id1_samplerow")
data = table.sample_row_keys()
actual_keys, offset = zip(*[(rk.row_key, rk.offset_bytes) for rk in data])

The returned row keys will delimit contiguous sections of the table of approximately equal size, which can be used to break up the data for distributed tasks like mapreduces.

The elements in the iterator are a SampleRowKeys response and they have the properties offset_bytes and row_key. They occur in sorted order. The table might have contents before the first row key in the list and after the last one, but a key containing the empty string indicates “end of table” and will be the last response given, if present.

Note

Row keys in this list may not have ever been written to or read from, and users should therefore not make any assumptions about the row key structure that are specific to their use case.

The offset_bytes field on a response indicates the approximate total storage space used by all rows in the table which precede row_key. Buffering the contents of all rows between two subsequent samples would require space roughly equal to the difference in their offset_bytes fields.

Return type

GrpcRendezvous

Returns

A cancel-able iterator. Can be consumed by calling next() or by casting to a list and can be cancelled by calling cancel().

set_iam_policy(policy)[source]

Sets the IAM access control policy for this table. Replaces any existing policy.

For more information about policy, please see documentation of class google.cloud.bigtable.policy.Policy

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client
from google.cloud.bigtable.policy import Policy
from google.cloud.bigtable.policy import BIGTABLE_ADMIN_ROLE

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table("table_id_iam_policy")
new_policy = Policy()
new_policy[BIGTABLE_ADMIN_ROLE] = [Policy.service_account(service_account_email)]

policy_latest = table.set_iam_policy(new_policy)
Parameters

policy (google.cloud.bigtable.policy.Policy) – A new IAM policy to replace the current IAM policy of this table.

Return type

google.cloud.bigtable.policy.Policy

Returns

The current IAM policy of this table.

test_iam_permissions(permissions)[source]

Tests whether the caller has the given permissions for this table. Returns the permissions that the caller has.

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table("table_id_iam_policy")

permissions = ["bigtable.tables.mutateRows", "bigtable.tables.readRows"]
permissions_allowed = table.test_iam_permissions(permissions)
Parameters

permissions (list) – The set of permissions to check for the resource. Permissions with wildcards (such as ‘*’ or ‘storage.*’) are not allowed. For more information see IAM Overview. Bigtable Permissions.

Return type

list

Returns

A List(string) of permissions allowed on the table.

truncate(timeout=None)[source]

Truncate the table

For example:

from google.cloud.bigtable import Client

client = Client(admin=True)
instance = client.instance(INSTANCE_ID)
table = instance.table(TABLE_ID)
table.truncate(timeout=200)
Parameters

timeout (float) – (Optional) The amount of time, in seconds, to wait for the request to complete.

Raise

google.api_core.exceptions.GoogleAPICallError: If the request failed for any reason. google.api_core.exceptions.RetryError: If the request failed due to a retryable error and retry attempts failed. ValueError: If the parameters are invalid.

yield_rows(**kwargs)[source]

Read rows from this table.

Warning

This method will be removed in future releases. Please use read_rows instead.

Parameters
  • start_key (bytes) – (Optional) The beginning of a range of row keys to read from. The range will include start_key. If left empty, will be interpreted as the empty string.

  • end_key (bytes) – (Optional) The end of a range of row keys to read from. The range will not include end_key. If left empty, will be interpreted as an infinite string.

  • limit (int) – (Optional) The read will terminate after committing to N rows’ worth of results. The default (zero) is to return all results.

  • filter (RowFilter) – (Optional) The filter to apply to the contents of the specified row(s). If unset, reads every column in each row.

  • row_set (RowSet) – (Optional) The row set containing multiple row keys and row_ranges.

Return type

PartialRowData

Returns

A PartialRowData for each row returned

exception google.cloud.bigtable.table.TableMismatchError[source]

Bases: ValueError

Row from another table.

exception google.cloud.bigtable.table.TooManyMutationsError[source]

Bases: ValueError

The number of mutations for bulk request is too big.